By International Development Research Centre
Booklet through foreign improvement learn Centre
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Extra info for A Decade of Reform: Science & Technology Policy in China
In addition to the new ―foundation‖ approach to funding, other approaches were introduced. In particular, efforts were made to encourage the flow of funds through ―horizontal‖ channels, especially between research institutes and enterprises and between research institutes and local governments. Institutes were encouraged to do contract research and to sell their research results. It soon became clear, however, that for these measures to work, other important changes in policies and attitudes would be required.
General functions Specific functions Core functions of government Policy formulation – Monitoring, review, and formulation of policies and, in some countries, plans concerning national S&T activities and resource allocation – Linkage to other policy domains (such as the economy, trade, education, health, environment, and defence) – Allocation of resources to S&T from overall budgets and first-order allocation among activities – Creation of incentive schemes to stimulate innovation and other technical activities – Provision of a capacity for implementing policies and coordinating appropriate activities – Provision of a capacity for forecasting and assessing the likely directions of technical change Regulatory – Creation of a national system for metrology, standardization, and calibration – Creation of a national system for the identification and protection of intellectual property – Creation of national systems for the protection of safety, health, and the environment Implementation functions Financing – Management of financing systems appropriate to the implementation of the other functions of the system – Use of government‘s purchasing power as a stimulus to innovation in the production of the goods and services it requires Performance – Execution of scientific or technological programs, HRD and capacity building Infrastructure including research of all kinds and technological development – Provision of scientific services – Provision of mechanisms to link R&D outputs to practical use – Provision of linkages to regional and international S&T activities – Provision of mechanisms for evaluating, acquiring, and diffusing best-practice technologies – Creation of innovative goods, processes, and services embodying the results of S&T activities – Provision of programs and facilities for the education and training of S&T personnel – Creation of institutional capacity in S&T – Provision of mechanisms to maintain the vitality of the national S&T community – Stimulation of public interest in and support of national initiatives in S&T – EOM of information services (including libraries, databases, statistical services, a system of indicators, and communications systems) – EOM of technical services (such as metrology, standardization, and calibration) – EOM of a system of awarding, recording, and protecting intellectual property – EOM of mechanisms to ensure the protection of safety, health, and the environment – EOM of major national facilities for research Note: These functions — both policy-related and implementation-related — are carried out by different stakeholders in any country‘s national system of innovation, with the particular combination being unique to that country.
They put heavy emphasis on encouraging talented young and middle-aged scientists. – They provided more opportunities for returning Chinese scientists. Some costs of the reforms – They led to commercially unskilled scientists trying to become entrepreneurs and enterprise managers, with, as a consequence, many enterprise failures. – They led to a move of bright young scientists away from basic research because financial rewards are potentially higher for applied research, which has created more opportunities for employment with new enterprises.
A Decade of Reform: Science & Technology Policy in China by International Development Research Centre