By Cai Hua
The Na of China, farmers within the Himalayan area, dwell with no the establishment of marriage. Na brothers and sisters dwell jointly their complete lives, sharing loved ones tasks and elevating the women's kids. as the Na, like every cultures, restrict incest, they perform a approach of occasionally furtive, occasionally conspicuous night encounters on the woman's domestic. The woman's partners--she often has greater than one--bear no financial accountability for her or her little ones, and "fathers," until they resemble their little ones, stay unidentifiable.This lucid ethnographic learn exhibits how a society can functionality with no husbands or fathers. It sheds gentle on marriage and kinship, in addition to on the placement of ladies, the mandatory stipulations for the purchase of id, and the impression of a communist country on a society that it considers backward.
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Additional info for A society without fathers or husbands: the Na of China
Pork treated in this way can be preserved for a long time. It is the only protein that the Na stock for regular consumption. This kind of pork (bo cha in Na) is the only food considered of quality: it is served by households to guests, it is the standard and obligatory offering at funerals, and it is used as payment to religious officials and as reimbursement for acts of kindness. The Na used to trade it for grain, salt, tea, cotton, and such, and they would also use it to pay back interest on a loan.
In their gardens, they grew flax, potatoes, beans, pumpkins, and milkweed. With the excep tion of manqin9, the Na rarely grew legumes. Hydraulic systems were sorely lacking or, if they existed, had serious shortcomings. There was only one canal, which was poorly maintained, making drainage and irrigation difficult. When it came time for sowing, arguments concerning the water towers frequently arose. As they continue to do today, each household regularly dried a bed of leaves in the stable, and this produced a mixed manure, the only fertilizer traditionally used.
Moreover, marriage between a male commoner and a female serf is unheard-of. In general, when a commoner lienee considered a marriage or a cohabitation for one of its sons, or indeed an adoption, it looked to someone from a commoner lienee. S O C I A L S T R A T I F I C A T I O N U N T I L 1 9 5 6 Cohabitation was not an option for the descendants of a lienee in which the members of both sexes, or one of the sexes, were serfs. When the new generation included both a girl and a boy, they practiced the mode of the visit exclusively.
A society without fathers or husbands: the Na of China by Cai Hua