By David Williamson
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Additional resources for Access to History. Europe and the Cold War 1945-1991
To avoid being outvoted by the three Western powers, the Russians insisted that each commander should have complete responsibility for his own zone. This decision effectively stopped the ACC from exercising any real power in Germany. • A limited number of central German ofﬁces dealing with ﬁnance, transport, trade and industry, which were to deal with Germany as a whole, were to be formed at some point in the future. • There was no agreement on how much reparations the USSR should be paid. The Soviets had already begun to strip their zone of industrial plant and raw materials, but the British and Americans were convinced that the German economy must be left sufﬁciently strong to pay for imported food and raw materials, and were not ready to subsidise the Soviet zone.
When Soviet troops crossed the Hungarian frontier in September 1944, Admiral Horthy, the head of state, appealed to the Soviets for a ceaseﬁre, but the Germans took Horthy prisoner and encouraged the Hungarian fascists, the Arrow Cross Party, to seize power in western Hungary. It was not until early December 1944 that Red Army units reached the outskirts of Budapest. In the Soviet-occupied section of the country the Communist Party was at ﬁrst too weak to play a dominant role in politics, and it therefore had little option but to co-operate with the Social Democrats, the smallholders, a peasants’ party, and several other middle-class parties.
33 Study Guide: Advanced Level Question In the style of Edexcel Study Sources 1–3 below. Source 1 From: Geoffrey Roberts, The Soviet Union in World Politics, published in 1999. The security perspective is the view that the driving force of Soviet foreign policy was the search for national security in what was perceived to be a hostile and threatening world. … This security perspective has much to commend it: … [it] focuses attention on the very real national security issues and dilemmas confronting Moscow.
Access to History. Europe and the Cold War 1945-1991 by David Williamson