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The deflection of the two halves of the Wye England— main span 770 ft (235 m)— due own weight was over 10 ft (3 m), which had Bridge, to their of course to be allowed for to enable the parts to be joined smoothly. Concrete erection methods can be used for concrete bridges although the sections must be much shorter— usually less than 16 ft (5 m) because of the greater weight of the material. Precast sections can be joined on by the 'prestressing' method, or alternatively the concrete can be Similar cast on the spot in formwork (a mould) which is carried forward by a carriage similar to that used for precast or prefabricated steel units.

Bridge foundations Pneumatic 30 caissons, large open bottomed cylinders sunk onto an area dredged level and pumped out with compressed air, allow foundations to be built on a river bed. They were first used in Britain on the Rochester bridge in 1854. They were subsequently widely adopted for depths up to 120 ft (37 m) and used on many great bridges, such as Brooklyn and the Forth. Men cannot safely work in compressed air at depths greater than 120 ft (37 m), however, so for deeper foundations a tube is first sunk and then cleared to form a well shaft using an open grab machine, before depositing the concrete.

For this reason a stiffening beam or box girder is almost always provided to supplement the cables. Even so, this type is rarely used for railway bridges as trains are heavier, and their loading more concentrated, than road traffic. Suspension bridges are, however, the solution for the longest spans, since wire for the cables can be produced cheaply with much greater strength than the steel suitable for beam construction. A compromise which is now popular for intermediate spans is the cable-stayed bridge which has stays joining the towers and deck.

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Additif 80 by CTICM


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