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ISBN-10: 0408013281

ISBN-13: 9780408013284

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The type of fuel used for heating is to be determined by the density of buildings. District heating, for example, is to be used in towns with more than 5000 dwellings while natural gas is to be used on housing estates of more than 400 dwellings. Regulations also apply to the efficiency and operation of heating systems. These specify the efficiency of small oil-fired boilers. They also cover the installation of automatic regulators for heating and ventilation systems, the pro­ hibition of residential air conditioning, heat recuperation and directives on the operation and maintenance of heating systems.

Measures apply to the insulation of pipes, space heating in different zones of a building, heating appliances and systems and their operation and control. District heating is to be increased from its present level of 25 per cent of all heating needs to provide 50 per cent of total heat demand by 1990. The Soviet Union used about 9648 Petajoules (PJ) for heating all buildings in 1976. Some 16 per cent of total energy consumption went to heating in the built environment. District heating is emphasized and systems can frequently make use of inferior solid fuels.

In buildings can be divided between those dealing with the This broad picture for all countries shows that energy building fabric and those for appliances used within a build­ demand in buildings in industrial nations could remain near ing. Each of these aspects of a building wear out and need its 1975 level despite rising living standards, more and newer to be replaced at different times. A building's fabric such buildings, greater ownership of appliances and a decline in as the walls, roof and floor last sixty to one hundred years the number of occupants per household.

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An Efficient Energy Future. Prospects for Europe and North America by Unknown Author Unknown Author


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