By Duncan Innes
Publication by means of Innes, Duncan
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Additional info for Anglo American and the Rise of Modern South Africa
Initial conditions are the strongest determinants in the econometric work of EBRD economists Falcetti et al. (2000), although they ﬁnd that some countries deﬁed the odds by performing better, or worse, than initial conditions suggested and that the eﬀect of initial conditions diminishes over time. ru. ‘it was easier for an Ukrainian to become a factory manager in Siberia than in Ukraine’. 2. Down and up the stairs: paradoxes of Russian economic growth Ksenia Yudaeva, Maria Gorban, Vladimir Popov and Natalya Volchkova 1.
A discussion, more literature and a strong view on this issue can be found in Chapter 2 on Russia. The CIS was formed in December 1991, although Azerbaijan did not ratify its membership until after the fall of the Popular Front government and Georgia did not join the organization until the following year. This section draws on material in Constructing a Market Economy: Diverse Paths from Central Planning in Asia and Europe and on a summary article (Pomfret, 2002; 2003). Besides the four GDN background papers, other reviews of the transition experience in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union include Wyplosz (2000), Fischer and Sahay (2000), Roland (2000), Havrylyshyn and Nsouli (2001), Åslund (2002) World Bank (2002), and Blejer and Skreb (2002).
Public debt only. 2 % GDP Share of Average General Fiscal Current General External Debt FDI inflows, private services in transition gov’t deﬁcit, % account gov’t debt, debt, % Service, % of GDP GDP, % score expenditures, of GDP balance, % of GDP of GDP % of 2001 % of GDP % of GDP exports of G&S FSU states: various transition scores (2001 or 2002) Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz R. 1 Voice and accountability World Bank Institute, New Governance Indicators database. *Not including the Balkan states.
Anglo American and the Rise of Modern South Africa by Duncan Innes